Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. Habitat destruction by human activity mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide.It is a process of natural environmental change that may be caused by habitat fragmentation, geological processes, climate change or by human activities such as the introduction of invasive species, ecosystem nutrient depletion and other human activities mentioned below.
The terms "habitat loss" and "habitat reduction" are also used in a wider sense, including loss of habitat from other factors, such as water and noise pollution.
Tropical rainforests have received most of the attention concerning the destruction of habitat. From the approximately 16 million square kilometers of tropical rainforest habitat that originally existed worldwide, less than 9 million square kilometers remain today. The current rate of deforestation is 160,000 square kilometers per year, which equates to a loss of approximately 69% of original forest habitat each year. - w i k i p e d i a -
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"Sukarāni asādhūni, attano ahitāni ca, Yaṁ ve hitañ-ca sādhuñ-ca taṁ ve paramadukkaraṁ." ( Easy to do are things that are bad and harmful to oneself. But exceedingly difficult to do are things that are good and beneficial. Dhammapada 12.163 )
The Great Lakes are facing an invasive species crisis. Asian carp, a group of foreign invaders with no known predators and a voracious appetite, are threatening one of the greatest fresh water resources in the world. Elected officials and the Army Corps of Engineers have failed to act, and the situation is dire. But architect Jeanne Gang sees an opportunity to clean up the river, to improve Chicago's water treatment system, and to revitalize a neighborhood.
Just weeks after becoming the first architect in more than a decade to win a MacArthur genius grant, Gang released a slender book outlining her vision of how to fix the Chicago River. Reverse Effect, which is the result of a yearlong collaboration with the Natural Resources Defense Council, advocates completely separating Lake Michigan from the Mississippi River basin and restoring the natural flow of the Chicago River. Not only would the separation prevent carp and other invasive species from traveling between the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, Gang's proposal would use a physical barrier as a catalyst to reimagine an urban neighborhood and to introduce green infrastructure to Chicago's South Side.
Back when Chicago was the world's hog butcher, animal waste from the stockyards and raw sewage were discharged directly into the Chicago River, creating a serious public health problem. So officials did what anyone with a backed-up toilet would do: they unclogged it and flushed it away. In 1900, work was completed on a 28-mile canal connecting the Chicago and Des Plaines rivers, reversing the flow of the Chicago River, and sending the city's waste down to the Gulf of Mexico. The canal created a vital shipping link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, but it also created a passageway for invasive species to travel between the watersheds. Now, the only thing preventing carp from entering the lakes is an electric fence that's both ineffective and expensive.
An architect is an unlikely candidate to solve this kind of problem, but Gang isn't your typical architect. The 47-year-old Chicagoan has a knack for engaging with the environment in unexpected and clever ways. Her most prominent work, the 82-story Aqua tower in downtown Chicago, uses wavy concrete balconies to create a unique, undulating form. And her design for the (still-unbuilt) Ford Calumet Environmental Center on Chicago's far South Side would be built largely out of salvaged materials from the surrounding industrial area, and it would use a "Living Machine" artificial wetland to treat wastewater. [link]
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In Reverse Effect, Gang and her collaborators follow in the footsteps of Daniel Burnham, who recommended in his 1909 Plan of Chicago that all of the city's lakefront property should be preserved as parkland. Gang's plan calls for constructing a second waterfront by damming the river at its natural terminus and creating an inland lagoon that would collect and clean storm water. Separating the river from the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal wouldn't just stop the free flow of invasive species, it would require the city to improve its wastewater treatment infrastructure so that cleaned water could be returned to Lake Michigan instead of being sent downstream.[link]
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